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Managing Health And Growth Issues In Overcrowded Koi Ponds

 




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Carpa Diem
Koi Kichi

Mar 18, 2010, 10:35 AM

Post #1 of 17 (16139 views)
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Managing Health And Growth Issues In Overcrowded Koi Ponds Can't Post

Managing Health And Growth Issues In Overcrowded Koi Ponds

There is a prevalent idea around that kois need sufficient space to grow, and various rules of thumb floating around suggesting that kois need a certain tonnage of water space (actual volume varies, depending on the size of the fish) per fish to reach optimal health and growth. The proponents of the rule of thumb theory defended it as a guideline for new hobbyists to ensure they do not end up killing their kois through overstocking and connected health issues. They do, however, acknowledge the possibility of highly skilled hobbyists being able to raise excellent fishes with less that the recommended rule of thumb tonnage per fish.

Now, overstocking is a common problem, and they mainly arise through:

1. New hobbyists growing tosais that rapidly grow into big fish that congest their ponds:
2. Koi addiction, which can afflict hobbyists and involve kois of all levels.

The 2 common problems arising from high stocking levels, overstocking or overcrowding are:

1. Stunted, limited or inhibited growth; and
2. Susceptibility to disease.

There are 2 schools of thought on the causes of stunted, limited or inhibited growth in highly stocked, overstocked or overcrowded ponds:

1. Pheromone/growth inhibition hormones emitted by kois naturally to inhibit growth and control the adverse effects of overcrowding.
2. Stress from overcrowding affecting and limiting growth.

The Pheromone/growth inhibition hormone theory is supported by scientific research by ichtyologists, academics and koi experts suggesting that the offending hormones can be removed by:

1. Culling and moving fish around to see if they grow better in another pond.
2. Activated carbon.
3. Protein skimmers skimming DOCs containing hormones out of the pond system.
4. Dilution via frequent partial water changes.

The Overcrowding Stress theory takes the view that stress is way more powerful than the effect of pheromone/growth inhibition hormones in reducing growth. Proponents of this theory recommends water changes to compensate for bad water quality arising from overstocking and chemical pheromone feed back, and when in doubt, to do more frequent water changes but not to the extent of disrupting the biofilter or stability of the pond water system.

An academic study by Perimutter, Alfred, Daniel Sarot, Man-Lin Yu, Rocco Filazzoia and Seely on the Effects of Crowding on the Immune Response of Fish indicates that fish kept in overcrowded conditions suffer impaired immune systems as a result of biochemical agents (i.e immune suppressing pheromones or hormones) released into the water by the other fish living in the pond to reduce a large population to more acceptable levels. This makes the other fish in the system less able to fight disease.

The studies concluded that low stocking densities can help minimize bacterial and viral disease problems, presumably on the basis that the fewer the fish in the water the less the concentration of pheromone present that suppress the immune system. The lower the stocking density the lower the bacterial load on the pond.

Observations of heavily stocked ponds with healthy and growing fishes indicate that the following measures can be adopted to manage health and growth issues in highly stocked ponds by improving water quality and reducing pheromones and stress:

1. Adopting the principle of moderation and low stocking is always recommended.
2. Frequent culling and reduction of fish population is advisable.
3. Frequent partial 5-10% water changes to remove pheromones and improve water quality via water extraction and dilution.
4. Protein skimmers and foam fractionators skimming foam and DOCs out of the pond water system thus removing pheromones and reducing biofouling.
5. Feeding of high quality, low waste food to reduce biofouling.
6. Removal of solid waste from the pond system and frequent filter maintenance to reduce biofouling.
7. Adequate biofiltration and fast pond turnover of approximately every 30 mins.
8. Increasing aeration and high TDO to reduce stress, improve digestion and promote growth.

Please feel free to add on to this post to suggest further measures we can take to reduce health and growth problems arising from overcrowded koi ponds.

Cheers,
Jeff


(This post was edited by Carpa Diem on Mar 18, 2010, 10:38 AM)


aryan8277
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Mar 19, 2010, 5:57 AM

Post #2 of 17 (16042 views)
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Re: [Carpa Diem] Managing Health And Growth Issues In Overcrowded Koi Ponds [In reply to] Can't Post

A very good article..
You are a well known person in koi world.
I have few doubts to clear out... still a newbie.....

What is the ideal size pond in your opinion?Latest buzz says 6 width x 10 length x 4 depth (feet).
Its good enough to grow kois?.... lets assume the stock level is low...Food is good and water change 5% daily... Will this help the kois to grow fast?

One more isssue is food that given to KOI's ....
I give my koi's natural foods mostly .... like barley, vegetables, worms and so on.
I still do feed my koi's pallet food.... Does this effect koi's growth?

What is the effect of bulking up the koi fast rate?
i grow my mine slow with natural food as i believe growing in stable rate will prolong life and quality.
Is my assumption is correct or wrong?

kindly advice



Carpa Diem
Koi Kichi

Mar 20, 2010, 6:04 PM

Post #3 of 17 (15930 views)
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Re: [aryan8277] Managing Health And Growth Issues In Overcrowded Koi Ponds [In reply to] Can't Post

Hi,SmileSmileSmile

Sorry I took awhile to reply as I am travelling in a remote snowbound part of Japan with limited internet access.

What is the ideal size pond in your opinion?Latest buzz says 6 width x 10 length x 4 depth (feet).
Its good enough to grow kois?.... lets assume the stock level is low...Food is good and water change 5% daily... Will this help the kois to grow fast?


In my view, pond size is a matter of preference and how you compensate for their respective disadvantages. It is always a matter of providing a good environment for growing kois -- bigger ponds will be more costly to run if you use chillers and have to medically treat the whole pond. You will need more and higher capacity water and air pumps and other equipment the bigger the pond.

The disadvantages of small ponds include the space constraint, and you will be surprised how often kois get injured from panic dashes caused by lightning, thunder or even fighter jets flying overheadFrownFrownFrown. If you overstock, the kois will be busy saying sumimasen and gomenasai each time they want to move and change directionWinkWinkWink. So low stocking is good.

For a long time, it was thought that pond depth of 6 ft is good to avoid predators, theft, sunburn and ensure stability in pond temperature. Sufficient depth is also thought to help kois exercise and develop their muscles when they feed at the surface.

If you opt for 4 feet deep ponds, you will need to chill and/or shade your ponds and ensure good security. Shallow ponds are also thought to be good in preventing sinking disease as the lower pressure will make it easier for kois to regulate their swim bladders.

Good hobbyists have raised excellent kois in 3 feet deep ponds. I've heard of loud scornful remarks deeming that an idiotic move as they declare the kois are sure to get bent and damage their tails when they feed floating food. They couldnt be more wrong -- those with 3 feet deep ponds feed sinking food!!! This points to the fact that if you know your kois and what they need, you can play around with various possibilities and compensate for the weaknesses in the choice of environment.

Your suggested pond size is good for growing kois, provided you shade and/or chill the pond. With low stocking, good food and 5% water change, to grow good kois, you will need in addition:

1. Good genetics. If you want big jumbo kois, you will need to ensure the parents have jumbo genes. Only a very low percentage of a spawn carry the jumbo genes, so you will need to carefully select kois with potential to reach jumbo. The easiest way is to pay good money for nisais or sansais at koi auctions (not guaranteed, but should be spot on most of the time as the breeder has a reputation to protect when selling high end kois). You can also learn to pick tosais with jumbo potential, but although cheaper, these fishes often will never be as beautiful as their more expensive breeder pre-selected sisters.

2. Excellent aeration/oxygenation. The higher the Total Dissolved Oxygen (TDO) levels, the better ( some believe in TDO saturation and slightly above saturation) as increased oxygen will help lower stress and improve digestion. Airblowers, spray bars, water falls, Bakki showers and oxydators are cheaper methods of achieving TDO saturation. At the higher end, you have the cavitation DOB and Oxygen injectors.

One of the best koi keepers in our region is Yotti in Thailand -- you can read about his small 12 tons pond ( an additional 6 tons filter) using high oxygenation (he's one of the first to use oxygen injectors in our region) to raise fantastic kois here: http://www.koi.com.my/...t_reply;so=ASC;mh=25;

3. Adequate Biofiltration, Protein Skimming and Filter Maintenance The faster the pond turnover rate through the filters, the better (there's a limit though, and Yotti's pond turnover of 4-5 times per hour is one of the fastest I know so far). Adding a protein skimmer to skim surface water and foam out of the pond system will be a good addition to your pond, as floating wastes and dissolved organics (DOCs) including hormones and liquid waste can removed from the pond system thereby reducing the workload on your filters and improving water quality.

5% daily water changes and regular filter maintenance including using various methods of removing solid waste from the pond system will help reduce biofouling and keep the water in excellent condition for the koi.

One more isssue is food that given to KOI's ....
I give my koi's natural foods mostly .... like barley, vegetables, worms and so on.
I still do feed my koi's pallet food.... Does this effect koi's growth?


In the wild, carps feed on worms, crustaceans and vegetation. So there is nothing wrong with what you feed, except that in the wild carps rarely grow to be as chubby as pond raised kois. In the US, one of the brands using worms, crustaceans and vegetables in their feed (no fish protein, reason given being kois do not eat fish in their natural diet) is thought to prevent and cure Hikui, a dreaded koi ailment among koi keepers.

The other problem with fresh food is contamination, so you will need to clean the vegetables and worms properly. If you feed worms, I suggest you steam them to disinfect against harmful bacteria and viruses etc. Yotti feeds steamed fresh silkworm pupae and hi growth wheat germ to his fishes, so there is no reason why it cannot work in your case if you supplement natural food with good quality wheat germ pellets.

Whether to grow kois fast or slow is a matter of choice. A breeder in one of the Niigata farms I visited mentioned that fast growing kois raised in the big farms in the South of Honshu island feel lighter when lifted out of the water compared to the slow raised Niigata kois. The difference, he said, could be in fat v muscle content.

There is also a theory floating around that fast grown kois tend to have a shorter life span. I have not personally verified this, but have read of fatty liver disease affecting fat, fast grown kois. Sometimes, fat chubby kois die of sudden death and the reasons given could range from egg impaction, fatty liver, heart disease and/or other internal organ failure.

So, if you prefer to grow your kois slow, that is perfectly fine and probably a wise decision tooCoolCoolCool

Cheers,
Jeff


(This post was edited by Carpa Diem on Mar 20, 2010, 6:21 PM)


Razif A
User

Mar 24, 2010, 2:00 AM

Post #4 of 17 (15732 views)
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Re: [Carpa Diem] Managing Health And Growth Issues In Overcrowded Koi Ponds [In reply to] Can't Post

Dear Jeff

A very well thought through and written opening article.
Could you elaborate on the bit about type of feed used in the USA and the dreaded hikui.
Can you be specific on Brand and source of your information.

Thank you and Best Regards

Razif Abdullah


Carpa Diem
Koi Kichi

Mar 25, 2010, 2:13 AM

Post #5 of 17 (15649 views)
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Re: [Razif A] Managing Health And Growth Issues In Overcrowded Koi Ponds [In reply to] Can't Post

A very well thought through and written opening article.
Could you elaborate on the bit about type of feed used in the USA and the dreaded hikui.
Can you be specific on Brand and source of your information.



Hi Dato,SmileSmileSmile

Sorry for the late reply. I'm travelling and it is a bit hard getting good internet access the last few days. I've had the privilege of meeting you previously at the AJKS 2007 when your shiro won, as well as at Ryuki Narita's premises at Iwakura in the Fall of 2006 or 2007.

The brand of koi food is the EA Show Koi Food by Evolution Aqua. You can read the product review here, especially by The Fishlady: http://www.pondproductreviews.com/...-Koi-Food-p-108.html

The Fishlady manages koi ponds for clients in California for over 25 years and her observations, while not backed with scientific research, is worth considering given her long experience and line of work: http://koishack.com/....php?showtopic=15316

Another possible food related cause of hikkui is the lack of anti-oxidants and fresh food: http://www.aquanutro.com/...ce-of-fresh-food.htm

Over the years, the following have been attributed as possible causes of hikkui:
1. Corals in filters;
2. Dirty filters;
3. Genetic weakness;
4. Sunburn;
5. Mishandling and skin damage;
6. Lack of fresh food and anti-oxidants in koi food;
7. UV lights;
8. Skin cancer;
9. Incoming water impurities;
10. Fish protein in koi food.

It has also been observed that:

1. females get afflicted with Hikkui more than males
2. age tends to bring it on
3. hikkui can be slowed and sometimes temporarily reversed when a fish is put in better quality water, especially water low in nitrates
4. fish with hikkui put into a mud pond gets better, but once back in a concrete pond, hikkui resurfaces again
5. fish in warm water seems to get hikkui earlier
6. stress especially from bad water could be a trigger.

In truth, no one really know the answer as to the actual cause or causes of hikkui.

Be that as it may, some mitigation steps based on available information can be taken:

1. ensuring clean filters and excellent pond water quality
2. shading the pond to avoid sunburn
3. chilling the pond to slow down the appearance of hikkui
4. feeding fresh food (both pellets as well as natural food)
5. ensuring high TDO to reduce stress.

Now, with the Fishlady's observations, feeding koi food with no fish based protein might just be an additional avoidance or mitigation step that is worth considering.

Best Regards,
Jeff


(This post was edited by Carpa Diem on Mar 25, 2010, 2:20 AM)


larz1
Veteran


Mar 25, 2010, 11:24 PM

Post #6 of 17 (15443 views)
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Re: [Carpa Diem] Managing Health And Growth Issues In Overcrowded Koi Ponds [In reply to] Can't Post

Let me add my compliment on your well thought out and written recommendations. Excellent advice and a very balanced view of the topic. There are many "rules of thumb" for best performance on growing healthy Koi relative to pond size, but not everyone has the freedom to build a pond 8' deep X 16' wide X 32' longShocked A wonderful luxury if you have the space, but if you are constrained by space and $$$ considerations there are other waysCool Your point about sinking food in shallower ponds is well taken. Koi are naturally Bottom Feeders (their mouth is down there for a reasonWink), so floating food makes them work harder and requires deeper water. Wild Carp will often be found in shallow streams happily feeding along the bottom and the edges. I've often seen them work their bodies 1/2 way onto the shore to reach for foodLaugh


Razif A
User

Mar 26, 2010, 1:52 AM

Post #7 of 17 (15437 views)
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Re: [Carpa Diem] Managing Health And Growth Issues In Overcrowded Koi Ponds [In reply to] Can't Post

Hi Jeff

It was in the fall of 2006 that we first met at Narita's. Has your son taken to the hobby too, he was having a whale of a time at Narita's.

Thank you for the elaboration. I think good water quality is vital and the single most important factor. i might concur with your view that nitrate is the trigger. In my pond, the system in place , has been able to keep ammonia and nitrite at very low levels but not nitrate. Most books benchmark acceptable nitrate level at up to 200 ppm. Due to constrain in changing water frequently, as this upsets the ecology of my filtration system, nitrates have persistently been between 80 and 150 ppm. Hikkui has inflicted a couple of my koi after 8 months under these water parameters.
I am not quite sure about pellet food with high fish meal content being a contributory factor though. If I was to take David Soon's ponds as examples, he switched back to the conventional filtration system about the time I went high-tech and he heavily feeds fish meal based pellet food. On my last visit to David's the fishes looked in admirable condition. He is very diligent in maintaining excellent water parameters.

In conclusion I do agree with you on keeping ammonia and nitrite as close to non delectable as possible and thank you for the tip that high nitrates could be the trigger.

Have a good weekend.

Best Regards

Razif Abdullah


Carpa Diem
Koi Kichi

Mar 26, 2010, 3:41 AM

Post #8 of 17 (15421 views)
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Re: [Razif A] Managing Health And Growth Issues In Overcrowded Koi Ponds [In reply to] Can't Post

 
Hi Dato,

Thanks for your very useful feedback. If you have contraints in doing frequent partial water changes (the fastest way to bring nitrates down), you can try:

1. Solid waste removal via DIY sieves (David Soon is leading a very useful discussion in his Pond Visit thread), Cetus Sieves or RDF as well as pond vacuum cleaners. If solid waste is removed, there is less biofouling and conversion into ammonia, nitrites and nitrates.

2. Protein skimmers, foam fractionators to remove DOCs out of the system. The idea is basically waste being pounded into dissolved organics via water returns or bakkis can be removed from the water surface and as foam. Yotti uses the skimming option to avoid too much water change and thinning beni layers on kois. Ethan on Koi bito forum has developed a DIY Foam Fractionator and Birdman has added a simple T joint and plastic skimming film on bakki showers return pipes to remove foam and DOCs. I am working on these
2 DIY projects and will post the results later.

By removing solid wastes and DOC foam, biofouling is reduced and ammonia,
nitrites and nitrates minimised.

Hope this helps,
Jeff


(This post was edited by Carpa Diem on Mar 26, 2010, 3:52 AM)


aryan8277
User


Mar 26, 2010, 10:43 AM

Post #9 of 17 (15363 views)
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Re: [Carpa Diem] Managing Health And Growth Issues In Overcrowded Koi Ponds [In reply to] Can't Post

Greetings Carpa Diem,
Thanks you for clearing my doubts and explanation was good and precise.
You mentioned that adding coral in the filtering system might be one of the possible reason
hikui spread to the koi. How marine items introduced into marine fish filtering anyway ....
what was the actual reason?

Filtering items ....
Does canister filters work as good as our conventional method filters?

my learning curve has just started so please advice...


HWONG
Veteran

Mar 26, 2010, 1:06 PM

Post #10 of 17 (15331 views)
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Re: [Carpa Diem] Managing Health And Growth Issues In Overcrowded Koi Ponds [In reply to] Can't Post

Jeff,
With regards to Hikkui, I read in one Forum that it is more likely that Hikkui is caused by a virus. (I forgot to bookmark the link!Unimpressed) Like Viral dermatitis, it may or may not be contagious. In his post, he had used Billion pro Liquid which is a concoction of Propolis and vitamin b12 etc, I remembered he said from the smell of the liquid, there is a strong presence of "tincture of Benzoin" (TIB). TIB is used to treat warts which is a viral in nature. He believe TIB is the key agent to treating Hikkui. Propolis (from bees) is well known for its healing properties and is also a very good disinfectant against bacteria and some virus. Apparently, Billion Pro can help treat Hikkui but it can recur. TIB is also caustic and can burn off the HI. So after treatment, the HI may never recover its glory.

MAybe, it is a good idea to try get some propolis and TIB and experiment. Propolis is quite expensive in Malaysia.


Carpa Diem
Koi Kichi

Mar 26, 2010, 4:27 PM

Post #11 of 17 (15269 views)
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Re: [HWONG] Managing Health And Growth Issues In Overcrowded Koi Ponds [In reply to] Can't Post

Hi Hwong,SmileSmileSmile

Thanks for your input. I've read about billion liquid as well.

Once hikkui strikes, the beni is as good as gone and the fish damaged. So it is best to prevent or minimise its appearance in our kois.

Peter Waddington on his website talks about how he put hikkui afflicted kois in a pond with heavy aeration and feed high quality food and switched off the UV lights to generate green water. Weeks later, the fish kept in green water recovered! Seems to point to bad water quality and high nitrates (green water means algae has helped consume the nitrates in the pond) as a cause. His other point about gin clear water and sunburn is also food for thought -- green water will also help provide cover from the sun and help in the healing process.

I have kept an open mind and listed down possible causes raised by hobbyists over the years and try to develop a hikkui avoidance and minimisation protocol that is wide enough to accomodate all the various possibilities.

The current consensus seems to point to genetic weakness as a most likely cause, brought on by:

1. advancing age -- a number of Niigata breeders we visited had old hikkui afflicted jumbos in their oyagoi collection
2. stress from bad water quality, especially high nitrates
3. warmer waters, as cooler waters seems to slow it down

The Fishlady's observations on EA Show koi food might have some healing aspects (as opposed to causal) that is worth considering:

1. Use of polychaete worms in the feed with healing and regenerative properties could mean that fish with hikkui caused by high nitrates gets healed and regenerated due to worm derived biochemical properties ingested by the fish. See a more detailed elaboration on the patented EA worm based feed here: http://www.nexuseazy.com/prod194.html

2. Ancient traditional medicine texts in China and Japan and research points to healing properties of earthworms.

Your brother in law is in the feed business -- can help to get some high quality earthworm based protein meal and silkworm pupae protein meal? I am trying to get some for experimenting but am unable to source them due to the low quantity needed for my research (max 50kg each). It will be good to feed earthworm protein based paste food to hikkui afflicted kois to see if they recover.

BTW, did you manage to cure your sanke with the sinking problem?

Cheers,
Jeff


(This post was edited by Carpa Diem on Mar 26, 2010, 5:25 PM)


larz1
Veteran


Mar 26, 2010, 5:08 PM

Post #12 of 17 (15252 views)
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Re: [Razif A] Managing Health And Growth Issues In Overcrowded Koi Ponds [In reply to] Can't Post

Could you elaborate a little bit on your concerns regarding water changes upsetting the ecology of the pond? I'm not sure I understand what you are saying.

For myself, we seek to maintain stability within the entire pond, which of course includes the filters. The question then becomes on of how to measure "stability".

The ideal method would be a continual flow of 5-10% fresh water into the pond with overflow (from settlement drains) constantly removing "old" water from the system. This purges the pond of nitrates and hormones that biofilters cannot deal with. Not everyone can do this, and the issue of wasting water is a problem for many ponders.

The 2nd best method would be daily water changes of 5-10% via manual settlement dumping, filter back-washing, etc... This is more labor intensive and slightly less stable than continual flow, but it also forces us to observe our filters every day.

Third best would be larger water changes (25-30%) once or twice weekly. This is far less stable, but less labor intensive. It also does not purge/dilute nitrate as efficiently as daily exchange.

Fourth best is large (40-50%) water changes once or twice per month. This is very unstable, causes wide swings in water quality, and allows Nitrate and Hormones to build up to very high levels in between changes.

The least desirable method is to attempt to maintain stability by constantly adding chemicals for kh and ph to prevent crashes with little water changed and merely "topping off" the pond to make up for evaporation. This allows Nitrates and Hormones to build up to extremely high levels. This inhibits growth severely and will tend to wear out the skin even on the best Koi. The only way this method can overcome those issues is to use an Ozone Generator which is very expensive and must be PERFECTLY controlled. One mistake with Ozone and you have a dead pond.

I hope this is helpful.


Carpa Diem
Koi Kichi

Mar 26, 2010, 5:57 PM

Post #13 of 17 (15238 views)
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Re: [larz1] Managing Health And Growth Issues In Overcrowded Koi Ponds [In reply to] Can't Post

Hi Larry,SmileSmileSmile

Thanks for chipping in.

In any thriving community, society or country, everyone has a role to play -- leaders,servants, educators, historians, writers, inventors, innovators, scientists, biographers, builders, medics, workers etc It is comforting to have someone with years of experience like you aroundSmileSmileSmile to guide us as the principles of good koi keeping are as old as the Sun and we need to unlearn our mistakes as quickly as we can before we kill our kois.

On feeding sinking food and shallow ponds, floating food was used in deep ponds so that kois could surface to feed and be seen properly instead of staying at the bottom. With shallow ponds and feeding of sinking food, a lot of emphasis is now spent getting water clarity so that the kois can be viewed in their full resplendent gloryWinkWinkWink.

My first introduction to kois was at the Japanese Gardens in Singapore in the late 1970s. The kois kept in the open air pond were indeed burrowing into the banks of the pond and tugging at the roots of carpet grass and you can see evidence of collapsed banks all over the sides of the pondSmileSmileSmile.

Cheers,
Jeff


Carpa Diem
Koi Kichi

Mar 26, 2010, 6:06 PM

Post #14 of 17 (15231 views)
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Re: [aryan8277] Managing Health And Growth Issues In Overcrowded Koi Ponds [In reply to] Can't Post

HiSmileSmileSmile,

For corals, most of us think that it could be waste getting stuck in the minute pores of corals that causes biofouling, thus contributing to bad water quality and high nitrates.

It is notoriously difficult to get corals cleaned properly, and in any case, there are other alternatives to corals such as oyster shells that are easier to clean. When in doubt, just avoid corals and use oyster shells insteadSmileSmileSmile.

I need to understand your pond set up a bit more to give my views on your filters:

1. What is your pond size and stocking levels?
2. What is in your filter system?
3. Are you using cannisters now, what type and better still pictures of the cannisters.

CheersSmileSmileSmile
Jeff


Razif A
User

Mar 27, 2010, 6:06 AM

Post #15 of 17 (15036 views)
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Re: [larz1] Managing Health And Growth Issues In Overcrowded Koi Ponds [In reply to] Can't Post

In June last year I installed a closed water recycling system, well explained under a Thread "cavitation technology" started by PH8. David Soon who had this system details out the recycling system in a post dated 2nd November 2008.
The gram positive bacteria is constantly pumped into the pond and over time a biofilm forms in the pond as well in the bio-filter chambers of the up-down chambers. My pond had good readings of ammonia and nitrite. Nitrate on the other hand was removed by the constant introduction of gram negative bacteria. This is the theoretical part at least. The trick was in the amount of gram negative bacteria being pumped in. Too little meant high nitrates and too much, I was told would result in a sudden rise in nitrite. The service engineer increased the flow of gram negative bacteria once and nitrite went from 0.02 to 0.57 in a matter of two weeks. In an attempt to bring nitrate below 100, I introduced 10% freshwater daily and this in turn upset the bio-flim formation in the bio chambers.
As I mentioned earlier, my pond utilizes a closed water recycling management system.
Prior to the installation of this system, I constantly changed 10% water over a 24 hour period.
Hope this clarifies matters.

Razif Abdullah


larz1
Veteran


Mar 27, 2010, 4:49 PM

Post #16 of 17 (14930 views)
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Re: [Razif A] Managing Health And Growth Issues In Overcrowded Koi Ponds [In reply to] Can't Post

Thank you for clearing that up as it does explain your concerns. I haven't kept up with that thread very well and I had completely missed the fact that you were using this method.
A very different system than what most ponders utilize and a high tech approach to maintaining good water while wasting very little of it. Many ponders are plagued with water use restrictions and must find ways to provide healthy water with minimal water changes. Systems like yours help to pave the way for them to enjoy our hobby.
Now I need to go catch up on that thread again...Cool


tandrea
New User

Apr 5, 2010, 7:04 PM

Post #17 of 17 (14016 views)
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Re: [Carpa Diem] Managing Health And Growth Issues In Overcrowded Koi Ponds [In reply to] Can't Post

Overcrowding is the main reason why water quality deteriorates and what you can observe is that the koi fish will now become less active and loses the appetite. I believe it's also the main reason why they become stunted. Certain web sources like this one states that it is good to provide at least 16 square feet for every koi fish to keep. I think it is roughly the size needed. What's your opinion?

 
 
 



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